Adaptation via local coastal programs
Local Coastal Programs (LCPs) help cities plan for the necessary and often costly adaptations to climate change. Dr.King's work has primary focused on strategies for adaptation to Sea Level Rise, providing cost and benefit analysis of different options.
Examples of LCP work:
Dr. King’s analyzed the effectiveness of retreat and armoring (with ESA), finding that nature based solutions, including the retreat of some private property as well as the Sharp Park golf course, were most cost-effective in four out of seven planning areas in the City of Pacifica. He also found that eventually Pacifica State beach will need beach nourishment/restoration and some structures behind the beach will need to be elevated to prevent damage during periodic flooding.
Dr. King’s analysis (with Revell Coastal) indicates that hybrid strategies involving dune restoration with the use of some cobble is the most cost effective solution in the short to medium term. This LCP also provides a simple example of a lease-back arrangement which could be used to finance managed retreat over the long run. Dr. King finds that with a thirty year time horizon, a leaseback arrangement can allow a buyout program for homeowners wishing to sell their coastal property.
Dr. King’s analysis indicated that a wide variety of options may be necessary in Ventura County including maintaining existing armoring, but also dune restoration and other nature based strategies.
In the past Dr. King also provided the economic analysis for numerous Coastal Regional Sediment Master Plans including Orange County (with Everest Consulting), San Luis Obispo County (with Everest), the San Francisco Bay (with BCDC) and the San Francisco littoral cell (with ESA).
Dr. King also was the Senior Economist on two studies of Southern Monterey Bay and worked with the Center for the Blue Economy on Seagrant involving the City of Monterey.